# Questions of Today, Day 10

• What is a multimeter?

“A multimeter measures electrical properties such as AC or DC voltage, current, and resistance.”1. • What is the difference among BINARY, HEXADECIMAL, and DECIMAL?

Binary: are just “Base 2” instead of “Base 10”. So you start counting at 0, then 1, then you run out of digits … so you start back at 0 again, but increase the number on the left by 1.”2

Hexadecimals: “They look the same as the decimal numbers up to 9, but then there are the letters (“A’,”B”,”C”,”D”,”E”,”F”) in place of the decimal numbers 10 to 15.”2

Decimal:”A Decimal Number (based on the number 10) contains a Decimal Point.”3 • What is the difference between inductive and deductive logic?

“A deductive argument is one in which it is impossible for the premises to be true but the conclusion false. Thus, the conclusion follows necessarily from the premises and inferences. In this way, it is supposed to be a definitive proof of the truth of the claim (conclusion), but an inductive argument is one in which the premises are supposed to support the conclusion in such a way that if the premises are true, it is improbablethat the conclusion would be false. Thus, the conclusion follows probably from the premises and inferences.”4. I really enjoyed Exploring Math eventhough I wasn’t here the whole time. I first started on Creative Writing but I wasn’t enjoying it as much, so I asked if I could switch to Exploring Maths and I’m glad I did it, It was extremely fun. Honestly I’m going to miss it. # Yesterday’s Journal, Day 9

Yesterday we worked again with Arduinos (which I LOVE), we had to make something we wanted to show our parents.

We also made a poster in pairs ( I was with Josefina) about something we learnt in Stanford. Our topic was Arduino. Later on we continued planing our city. # Questions of today, Day 9 What I do to solve the Traveling Sales Person’s Problem is to use Symmetrical Matrix.

• What is a Karnaugh Map?

“The Karnaugh map, also known as the K-map, is a method to simplify boolean algebra expressions. Maurice Karnaugh introduced it in 1953 as a refinement of Edward Veitch‘s 1952 Veitch diagram. The Karnaugh map reduces the need for extensive calculations by taking advantage of humans’ pattern-recognition capability. It also permits the rapid identification and elimination of potential race conditions.”1. • What are examples of things that are digital and analog?
• What is the difference between digital and analog?

An Analog signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity, i.e., analogous to another time varying signal. It differs from a digital signal in terms of small fluctuations in the signal which are meaningful.

“A digital signal uses discrete (discontinuous) values. By contrast, non-digital (or analog) systems use a continuous range of values to represent information. Although digital representations are discrete, the information represented can be either discrete, such as numbers or letters, or continuous, such as sounds, images, and other measurements of continuous systems.”2.

• What does 1011101010001 in binary equal in normal numbers (we did not cover this in class)?
• What is a game tree?

“In game theory, a game tree is a directed graph whose nodes are positions in a game and whose edges are moves. The complete game tree for a game is the game tree starting at the initial position and containing all possible moves from each position; the complete tree is the same tree as that obtained from the extensive-form game representation.”3.

• Give an example of an Game Tree • Why do computers use Game Trees?

Computers use Game Trees to know what the posible and best answers are in different circumstances.

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karnaugh_map

# Questions of today, Day 8 • You used 2 chips yesterday, find them and link them to your post. What is the name of the 2 chips that seem most like the ones you used yesterday: http://www.skot9000.com/ttl/ This is the first chip we used yesterday, it was a SN54/74LS08, QUAD 2-INPUT AND GATE This was the second chip we used. It is called SN54/74LS32, QUAD 2-INPUT OR GATE.

http://www.skot9000.com/ttl/datasheets/8.pdf

http://www.skot9000.com/ttl/datasheets/32.pdf

• What is a truth table?

“A truth table is a breakdown of a logic function by listing all possible values the function can attain. Such a table typically contains several rows and columns, with the top row representing the logical variables and combinations, in increasing complexity leading up to the final function.”1. • What is Demorgan’s Law?

“In propositional logic and boolean algebraDe Morgan’s laws are a pair of transformation rules that are both valid rules of inference. The rules allow the expression of conjunctions and disjunctions purely in terms of each other via negation.”2. • What is Ohm’s Law?

“Ohm’s Law is the mathematical relationship among electric currentresistance, and voltage.”3. • What is double implication? means that P and Q are equivalent. So the double implication is true if P and Q are both true or if P and Q are both false; otherwise, the double implication is false. • What is an adjacency matrix?

“The adjacency matrix, sometimes also called the connection matrix, of a simple labeled graph is a matrix with rows and columns labeled by graph vertices, with a 1 or 0 in position according to whether and are adjacent or not. For a simple graph with no self-loops, the adjacency matrix must have 0s on the diagonal. For an undirected graph, the adjacency matrix is symmetric.”5. # Reaserch Journal, Day 7:

So yesterday we learned about Boolean Algebra and how computers think and work. We also continued working with Arduino, this time we had to use chips and light up TWO LED’s. This time it was harder and a lot more complicated, there where a lot of wires and we had to connect everything on the right place so we didn’t burn the chip or the LED.  # Day 6

On monday we started with Arduino, we had to make a LED light work. It may look complicated but it’s actually very easy. We where tought about voltage, resistance, currence, ohms law, audrino and more. We worked on groups of three, I was with Daniel and Matias Chen.

# Questions of today (Day 6)

• What is an assembler?

“An assembler is a program that takes basic computer instructions and converts them into a pattern of bits that the computer’s processor can use to perform its basic operations. Some people call these instructions assembler language and others use the term assembly language.”1.

• What is an Arduino?

“Arduino is a tool for making computers that can sense and control more of the physical world than your desktop computer. It’s an open-source physical computing platform based on a simple microcontroller board, and a development environment for writing software for the board.”2

• What is the Traveling Sales Person Problem? (we did not cover this in class)

“The travelling salesman problem (TSP) asks the following question: Given a list of cities and the distances between each pair of cities, what is the shortest possible route that visits each city exactly once and returns to the origin city? It is an NP-hard problem in combinatorial optimization, important in operations research and theoretical computer science.”3

• What is Pre-Fix notation?

“Prefix notation is a mathematical notation. It is a way to write down equations and other mathematical formulae. Prefix notation is also known as Polish notation. The notation was invented by Jan Łukasiewicz in 1920. He wanted to simplify writing logic equations.”4.

• What are the leaves of a binary tree?

“In computer science, a binary tree is a tree data structure in which each node has at most two children (referred to as the left child and the right child). In a binary tree, the degree of each node can be at most two. Binary trees are used to implement binary search trees and binary heaps, and are used for efficient searching and sorting. A binary tree is a special case of a K-ary tree, where k is 2.”5

• What is a complete graph?

“In the mathematical field of graph theory, a complete graph is a simple undirected graph in which every pair of distinctvertices is connected by a unique edge.  A complete digraph is a directed graph in which every pair of distinct vertices is connected by a pair of unique edges (one in each direction).”6

• What is a Finite State Machine (FSM)?

“A finite-state machine (FSM) or finite-state automaton (plural: automata), or simply a state machine, is a mathematical model of computation used to design both computer programs andsequential logic circuits. It is conceived as an abstract machine that can be in one of a finite number of states. The machine is in only one state at a time; the state it is in at any given time is called the current state. It can change from one state to another when initiated by a triggering event or condition; this is called a transition. A particular FSM is defined by a list of its states, and the triggering condition for each transition.”7

• 5.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binary_tree
• 6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complete_graph

# The start of day 6

Today we started graph coloring, we colored South America, we had to do the same thing we made with the clay but in the computer using paint.

Assign colors to the states in each case. Try to find the least number of colors needed so that if two states share a border (part of a side, not just a corner), they have different colors. 